White Papers

Introduction

India’s plan for expansion of port network under the SAGAR programme is likely to see operationalisation of large number of ports and dockyards which will be spanning the 7500 kms plus coastline. The Government’s push to drive transportation of goods and trade along the country’s coastal areas as well as with regional neighbours may see expansion of existing ports and development of new ports. Security of ports and dockyards assumes importance due to new threats and international norms given the potent threat of terrorism. While the major ports will be secured by the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), there are a number of subsidiary ports where port management authorities may hire private security agencies (PSA) thus an overview of the security guarding at ports and dockyards assumes importance.

Introduction

An electronic surveillance cum security grid is seen as the next generation system which supplements and in some cases even replaces the ubiquitous guard. The facilities for remote screening, documenting for evidence and analysis by a combination of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) networks for 24/7 surveillance of desired areas has meant that the systems are in place today in every place of public interest. A combination of surveillance, identity, access controls and so on can provide an unobtrusive network which is being preferred especially for business entities which have large footfall of regular employees or customers. At the same time an electronic security grid is vulnerable and thus complete reliance on the same is ill advised with preference for an integrated electronic cum physical guarding systems. The focus of the paper is however only on vulnerability of electronic security grid as the integrated system has been covered separately.

Introduction

Vigilantism refers to act by a group of persons that metes out extra judicial punishment to alleged lawbreakers. Vigilantism prevails when there is either limited faith in the law of the land or when a group feels that the law does not cater for its socio-political needs. Under the circumstances police are either ineffective or are constrained to take action due to patronage of vigilante groups by influential leaders or political parties. This is also seen as, “mob justice,” however a vigilante movement is organized, thus carries a name and has a leadership structure. Vigilantism is different from instant mob anger seen after a vehicle accident in India or at hospitals. There has been a perception of increase of incidents of vigilante justice in India in recent years. While violence by vigilante groups has been criticized by various political leaders, in the parliament and even the Supreme Court, continued prevalence is a cause of security concern. With likely prevalence of violent incidents attributable to vigilante groups in the near future, there is a need for examining actions by private security agencies from the point of view of effective guarding of assets.

Introduction

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) which functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs has released statistics of Crime in India in 2015 recently which outlines basic trends in crime in the country. Trends and patterns in crime have an important bearing on security guarding as these provide geographic areas of focus and techniques to be employed, armed/unarmed and so on. Trends of crimes change with growing population and rapid development of towns and cities which has led to focus on urban areas. Thus these statistics provide an important guideline for guarding agencies which should be combined with local factors to strengthen the grid and provide effective security to assets and personnel. While the main task of control of crime is that of the government law enforcement agencies, paucity in numbers have placed private security agencies at the forefront, thus an understanding of the crime trends assumes importance.

Introduction

The, “internet of things,” is use of cyber and communication networks to interact with day to day objects and manipulate their usage by sending and receiving data. As the concept is being put into practical usage, smart buildings are being designed where a large number of functions will be automated and manipulated remotely through digital commands. The Government of India’s programmes such as Digital India and Smart Cities would entail possible rapid adaptation of internet of things across the board resulting in development of large number of smart buildings and smart enclaves. Security is a primary concern for smart buildings and will include in the initial stages personnel, electronic and cyber interventions placing new demands on private security agencies.

Introduction

The quarter August to October is generally festival season in India. Starting with the beginning of the month of Sawan (Shrawan) in the local calendar there are a series of festivals till Diwali which generally is in the last week of October. This also includes the celebration of Eid. Independence Day on 15 August adds to the festive mood in the country. The combination of religiosity and festivity however provides an opportunity for anti social elements, terrorist and extremist organizations to carry out their nefarious activities with a view to achieve their agenda of creating rift in society, inciting communal violence and destroying peace and harmony. In addition heavy rush at religious places and shopping centres poses a challenge of crowd management and disasters as stampede. Security guarding agencies are at the forefront at most venues and thus need to be sensitized for effective response during the festival period.

Introduction

The old saying, “anything unchecked is undone,” underlines importance of supervision in security guarding in an era of multiple challenges and increasingly professional services demanded in the industry which is slowly graduating from a generalized to a specialized skill based vocation. So far supervision is seen as add on with a tendency in some to avoid this important intervention in the hierarchy to cut costs. However supervisors add not only to the depth of security cover being provided but also quality of service thus need particular focus. With the availability of tracking devices there is a perception that supervision has become redundant which is far from truth. Despite technology in an industry which is manpower intensive human factor remains the most important in efficiency as well as effectiveness. A review of the importance of supervision in guarding is thus necessary.

Introduction

The Islamic State of Iraq and al Shams or Syria (ISIS) also known variously as the Islamic State, ISIL or Daesh has had a major impact on the terrorist threat spectrum across the globe in the past two years. While ISIS is on the decline in the core area in West Asia recent terrorist attacks in France, Belgium, Bangladesh and parts of South East Asia highlight the potential of this group which goes beyond physical presence and traditional profile to include a range of smaller affiliates and indoctrinates willing to carry out Lone Ranger attacks. The overall impact of the ISIS in India has been negligible so far, but there is a concern over potential of this group given a number of cells which have been exposed in the recent past and reports of a number of youth suspected to be affiliated with ISIS and fighting in Syria and Iraq. More over the type of extreme violence perpetrated by the group underlines need for enhanced vigil for even a single attack can cause great harm. Thus a review of the ISIS threat and responses is necessary.

Introduction

Access controls are a basic security measure evolved on the principle of denial. Thus denying entrée to a miscreant be the person be a terrorist, a criminal or just straying in areas which are restricted is seen an effective measure to guard a premise or asset. In addition there is a need for ensuring security of information and prevent espionage thus denial of access through identity control is used to effect. Establishment of a barrier also facilitates checking of hostile material such as explosives in a vehicle or person or bags in a shopping mall. Given increased level of threats and surreptitious means used by malcontents there is a need for establishment of multi barrier access controls today with a minimum of two tiers – human and electronic in many areas thus this issue needs some consideration.

Introduction

Camera networks have become ubiquitous in the Indian security environment today. While closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras were being placed in high threat zones, increasingly camera networks are being laid out across metros such as Mumbai and Hyderabad, in buses, trains and public places where there is threat of a crime or terror incident. Ironically a CCTV network is neither “closed,” or secure but is accessible to unauthorized individuals and miscreants who have only basic knowledge of their functioning and are determined to penetrate the same. Camera networks are vulnerable to two types of attacks – physical as well as cyber. More over criminals are targeting a CCTV camera by covering or damaging the same at the scene of crime to prevent recording of their profile and activity. Thus there is a necessity for planning and ensuring security of camera networks.

Introduction

A proactive approach is thus proposed to risk management. Instead of a strategy based on attempts to remove causes of human error, an attempt is made to design a strategy based on: – An identification of the boundaries of safe performance, efforts to make these boundaries visible to decision makers and – Efforts to counteract pressures that drive decision-makers toward the boundaries. Since most serious accidents have been caused by operation of hazardous system outside the design envelope, the basic problem in design of improved risk management strategies is to ensure an improved interaction among the decision making and planning strategies at the various levels shown in figure. However, a scheme for improved interaction cannot be created by integration of research results from the various disciplines studying the individual levels ,due to the basic differences in conceptual reference frames, research paradigms, and language of representation. In consequence, results from present academic research must be reinterpreted and often supplemented by analysis based on a model suited to capture the function of the entire system aiming at proper control of the normal as well as disturbed operation of the potentially hazardous processes of a particular company. Considering the dynamic nature of a modern society with companies and institutions constantly striving to adapt to a dynamic environment, the usual approach to modeling the system by decomposing it into elements and describing its function by causal interaction among these elements is not reliable. Causal explanations cannot be used for systems that include closed loop interactions and adaptive changes. Instead, models in terms of functional abstraction are required, describing the information flow structure within the entire system involved in the control of the hazardous processes. This approach can be used to design and analyze reliably a system, even when its functional elements are subject to unpredictable changes. There is a basic difference between the requirements to design and analysis of; – systems controlled by pre-planned strategies and prescriptive procedures and – systems controlled by closed-loop feedback strategies.

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